Welcome to the library, the first stop on your way to writing a successful speech! This walkthrough will take you through things you’ll need to know to engage your audience, and get your ideas across by being able to present the facts.
Why focus on research? You want people to believe that you know what you're talking about! For instance, let's say your big issue is air pollution. You promise to pass a law that says all new cars must run on electricity, not gas. Your speech will sound really strong if you have the facts to back it up. How much bad air does one car create each year? How many new cars are sold in the U.S. every year? How much will pollution be cut every year?
Choosing a topic that is meaningful to you is important not only to hold your interest, but will also encourage you to stay committed to the project. The first step in the research process is to get a rough topic idea in your head before moving on. Take the “Are We A Match!” quiz to the right, and then look below to see if you are ready to begin the research process.
(1-2 points) Your topic may or may not be of interest to you. You will want to think it through a bit more. Can you see yourself researching this topic? Perhaps make a list of other potential topics before choosing one and then retake the quiz.
(3-4 points) Your topic probably holds some interest to you but you may want to investigate it a bit further. Perhaps do a Google search. See what kind of information is out there and if you’re still interested in the topic, move forward!
(5+ points) Your topic is probably something that excites you and you’ve already got some ideas or background that will help propel you forward in the research process.
Instructions: Investigate library.wayne.edu below to learn more about the features and services available to you. Click on the following areas of the home page to learn what they are: Quick Search (the default white search box), Catalog, Article Databases, Research Guides, Summon, and Ask-A-Librarian.
Click on each of the following for a more in-depth view at how you can use these features as you research:
From the Research Guides page, locate the Communication guide. Next, go to the COM 1010 tab. Which database is considered the "premier online resource covering today's hottest isues"?
Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context is considered the "premier online resource covering today's hottest topics".
Gale Virtual Reference Library is an authoritative source for finding background information. If you would like help finding an article, feel free to “Ask-A-Librarian!”
Instructions: Find and use Gale Virtual Reference Library from the Article Databases link on the library home page. The topic I’ve chosen is the “Digital Divide” – take a look in Gale Virtual Reference Library for information on my topic.
You can do the same with your topic. Helpful tip: if you locate something interesting, make note of it, and include where you found it.
Search for "digital divide", using quotes (quotes tell the database to look for the words together, not separately) in the search box. Locate the ways you can limit the search. Which of the following isn't an option to limit results by?
Reading level isn't an option.
Instructions: Search for “digital divide” in both Quick Search and the Library Catalog from the library home page
In which resource did you find books related to the topic “digital divide”?
Both is correct. Both Quick Search and the Library Catalog will let you find books in our catalog.
Which resource did you find had a broad array of resources on your topic, including articles?
Quick Search is correct. Quick Search not only looks for books, but also articles from journals, newspapers and magazines as well!
Which resource would you MOST LIKELY use to find a SPECIFIC book title such as: “From Digital Divide to Digital Opportunity?”
Library Catalog is correct. When you know a specific title of a book, it will always be faster and easier to use the Library Catalog link to search for it. If you’re interested in knowing an easy way to get books that Wayne State University Libraries don’t own, check out this information on Interlibrary Loan.
Now that you know how to get around the Wayne State University Library home page, let's try turning a topic into a research statement or question. This is where your prior knowledge and looking at background information is extremely helpful. If you have notes from the Gale Virtual Reference Library Activity, use them to help you fill out the form on the right.
Here’s how I did mine:
Statement: How does the Digital Divide affect university students in urban areas?
Topic: Digital Divide
Here's some information that is helpful to note: My topic deals with access to information and communication technologies (like the Internet); it generally impacts lower socioeconomic and rural classes; and even if access is provided, what about literacy? Who teaches people to use technology? Who is responsible for providing access to computers and the Internet?
Where I got the information: Gale Virtual Reference Library; and reliable websites about college students and Internet access.
Some key points to consider: The definition of digital divide; and data on college students and Internet access.
Instructions: Fill in the form with answers from any topic idea. Use Gale Virtual Reference Library, notes, prior knowledge, or a textbook, anything to help guide your research.
Information that is helpful to know
Where did I get it? (if you have citations put them here)
Important points I've discovered about my topic
Keyword searching is when you use only the important nouns and/or verbs from a bigger thought or question. When searching the Library Catalog, or one of the article databases, you will want to use ONLY keywords or phrases. Phrases should go in quotes, for example: “digital divide.” It is equally important to think of other ways of describing your topic, such as synonyms or antonyms. Why? Because the databases are looking for the words you use to search in different places. The author of your article may not have used the phrase “digital divide” with college students, but instead used it with high school students. Here are my keywords and some synonyms I found while reading background information.
How does the digital divide affect university students in urban areas?
Digital Divide: internet access inequality, digital inequality, digital communication inequality, global digital divide
University Students: students, college students, first year college students
Urban areas: cities, minority, inequality, poor
I found narrow keywords and/or phrases like “digital communication inequality”, but also broad keywords and/or phrases like “students”. Notice that “affect” is NOT a keyword. Words like “affect,” “how,” and “increase” don’t really add anything to our search, so it is more effective to leave them out. I’ve included a worksheet you can print and use for your topic and a sample of one I’ve already filled out.
How do oil spills damage the environment?
“Oil spills,” “damage” and “environment” is the best answer.
What dangers do school sports pose for students?
“Dangers”; “school sports”; “students” is he best answer (students could be left out simply because if you’re looking at SCHOOL sports, students is implied)
What foods do grizzly bears eat in the Yellowstone area?
“Foods,” “grizzly bears” and “Yellowstone” is the best answer. Grizzly bears could be searched for as a phrase, or you could also search for just bears; small changes like this can easily change your results list, so remember to try out new searches)
Now that you’ve started looking at information on a topic, it is important to take a moment to make sure that the information that you ultimately use for your paper will be quality information. In today’s world, evaluating information is difficult since information is everywhere that we look. You must be able to ask yourself questions when you are reviewing a piece of information to make sure that the content is providing quality information, based on facts. Here are some questions to ask yourself when you are reviewing information: does the author have some sort of authority on the subject? Is the information reliable? Is there credibility to what is being said? Review the chart to learn more.
Instructions: Study the chart below. Examine the information that you’ve been able to find so far. Does it agree with what the quality information chart is describing?
It is important to understand the difference between “scholarly” and “popular” articles. It is likely that you will be asked you to find a mix of sources, like magazines, newspapers or scholarly journal articles. Scholarly journal articles can also be referred to as “peer-reviewed” or “refereed” articles.
Peer-review and refereed articles are the same thing: articles reviewed as being suitable for journal publication by experts in a particular field of study for accuracy and quality. Very often writers will end up submitting their articles multiple times until they meet the standards of a particular journal which makes journals very credible and trusted sources of infomation.
Instructions: Study the chart below, and get ready to use the information in an activity.
If you haven’t studied the Scholarly Versus Popular chart, do so before attempting this activity.
Instructions: Read the following passages. Based on the information you’ve read about different types of resources, choose the one that best fits the style of writing for each passage.
“The calendar says August, but Americans are in for a snow job from President Obama’s principal organizing arm, which this month will be primarily pitching ObamaCare, along with climate change and maybe even gun control. Organizers call it grassroots “blizzarding.” Try government propaganda. Paul Bedard of The Examiner of Washington reports that Mr. Obama’s Organizing for Action group is planning high-tech assaults on GOP lawmakers along with so-called “public information" campaigns that will capitalize on social media. So, how deep will the "blizzarding" get? Think of Susan Rice, former U.N. ambassador/lackey, blaming the attack at the U.S. outpost in Benghazi, Libya, on an anti-Muslim video. Or how the Obama administration boasted ad nauseam last year that it had al-Qaida on the run yet clamped down on any references to "terrorism." Oh, what a difference a year makes, eh? Team Obama won that disinformation campaign and another four years to implement ObamaCare, capture the climate's carbon (regardless of how flat global temperatures remain) and erode freedoms that haven't already been chiseled away from constitutional protections. But this year, amid scandals that the administration denies, Americans are more skeptical -- if not angry. And no matter how it's served up, a spoonful of sap won't make ObamaCare go down any easier for a nation that doesn't want it.”
This passage came from a Newspaper Editorial: "EDITORIAL: Obama’s snow job.” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review [Pittsburgh, PA] 12 Aug. 2013. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 12 Aug. 2013.
“Evidence of athlete use of AS has been available since the 1950s with AS contributing to c. 60% of adverse findings according to recent WADA reports.6 In the general population there are data showing an increase in the prevalence of AS use.7 Despite such widespread use there is still some controversy as to the CV health consequences of taking AS.8 Large sample epidemiological evidence of the CV health consequences of long-term AS use is lacking, likely because of the reluctance to admit use and/or possession. In addition, evidence for a link between AS use and CV disease outcomes or end-points is mostly limited to case study reports. Published case studies include AS use associated with myocardial infarction,9 stroke,10 embolism11 and other CV health issues (table 2). Although caution should be expressed in implying cause and effect from case studies,8 they can provide direction for case series and experimental studies as well as informing/educating clinical practitioners.”
This passage came from a Scholarly Journal
“Jeff Novitzky, the investigator with the Food and Drug Administration who built the doping cases against Barry Bonds and Marion Jones, heard a variation on that line—Do we really want to know?—after he launched a federal probe into Armstrong and the U.S. Postal Service team in 2010. The U.S. attorney's office in Southern California chose not to pursue a criminal case against the Texan last February, leaving USADA and its executive director, Travis Tygart, to begin its doping investigation. Tygart invited witnesses to reiterate under oath what they had already told the Feds. After years of keeping secrets, and of what the USADA report calls significant pressure and attacks from the Armstrong camp, the truth-telling came as catharsis. According to a source familiar with the government probe, the investigators' challenge had been less to get Postal riders to talk than to get them to stop crying so they could talk.”
This passage came from a Popular Magazine
Instructions: Watch the video below to learn how to search for articles in an article database. While we are showing you how to find articles in Omnifile Full Text Select, the majority of article databases you’ll use will function similarly.
Now that you have a good idea of the different types of articles that you’ll encounter, let's start searching for information to back up a topic in an article database (a big collection of articles that you can search).We recommend Omnifile Full Text Select as a good place to search for material, but any of the General/Multidisciplinary article databases will do. They provide broad access to many types of articles in a wide range of subject areas.Use the article databases link, or one of the Research Guides to find subject specific databases.
Search Omnifile Full Text Select for “digital divide” (use quotes because it’s a phrase). Study the results page, and find where you can manage page options. Which of the following is included as part of the result format option?
Detailed is correct. There are four options: result format; image quick view; results per page; and page layout. Click through each to see the difference between them all.
There are many different forms of plagiarism. Click through the images below, and use their definitions to decide if the scenarios to the right describe a form of plagiarism.
Instructions: Use the plagiarism definitions from the slide show to decide if the scenarios below are examples of plagiarism.
Scenario 1: Sarah finds the perfect information, but there are bits and pieces scattered on various sites. She decides to splice all the pieces from the sites together in her paper. Is this plagiarism?
This is an example of “the potluck paper”
Scenario 2: Johnny mentions an author’s name in his paper, and follows it with information on the material such as a date or page number. Is this plagiarism?
This could have easily been “the forgotten footnote”, but because pertinent information is added, it is not plagiarism.
Scenario 3: Veronica finds the perfect quote for her paper, finds the proper in-text citation, and includes it in her bibliography. But, she forgets to put quotation marks around the quote. Is this plagiarism?
This is an example of “the too perfect paraphrase”.
Scenario 4: Smith uses a paper from his psychology class to write the bulk of his paper for his education class. Is this plagiarism?
This is an example of “the self stealer”.
Scenario 5: Elliot sometimes quotes and cites sources, but on other occasions, he doesn't so that he avoids having a paper that looks like it doesn’t have any of his own thoughts. Is this plagiarism?
This is an example of “the perfect crime”.
When presenting information in any format, it's important to provide a list of citations in some sort of style in order to avoid plagiarism. This style may be MLA, APA or even Chicago. Ultimately, no matter what style you use, you need to be able to create citations that allow others to find the information you used. Citations, no matter the style, contain valuable information like the name of the publication (a book, article or even internet pages), page numbers, the author, and more.
Use the game to the right to get more acquainted with the different parts of a citation. This will help you to identify the parts of a citation, but also recognize how citations look different depending on the publication. The handout below demonstrates how to find citations for articles already created for your use in the database. Be sure to verify that the citation is formatted correctly, don't just put it in your list of references.
If you'd like more help with citing sources, you can visit The Warrior Writing, Research and Technology Zone (2nd floor of the undergraduate library, also called the UGL) to meet with a tutor. You can also get help making a fantastic PowerPoint from the technology assistants who work there.
Instructions: Please drag and drop the dashed-border elements of the research source to the correct citation format below.
|Article Title:||Outsmarting Dengue Fever|
|Date Published:||Apr 2011|
|Date Retrieved:||23 July. 2012|
|Publication Title:||Scientific American|
Produce an MLA citation for this Popular Magazine Article in this box:
Correct MLA Citation:
Coffey, Rebecca. “Outsmarting Dengue Fever.” Scientific American Apr. 2011: 16. ProQuest. Web. 23 July. 2012.
|Article Title:||How I caught up with Dad|
|Date Published:||2008, October|
|Publication Title:||Men’s Health|
Produce an APA citation for this Popular Magazine Article in this box:
Correct APA Citation:
Rothbart, D. (2008, October). How I caught up with Dad. Men’s Health, 108-113. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.
Public speaking can definitely be intimidating. But if you plan ahead and follow some of these helpful speech-giving suggestions, you can make your speech day far less daunting.
Instructions: Please fill out the form below. You can use the search information you found while searching for information on the digital divide to brainstorm, or choose a topic of your own to answer the questions.
What is the most important message?
How will I gain audience attention at the introduction? Do I have a story? Begin drafting an attention getter here.
Have I met the assignment guidelines for sources? Write them out to be sure. You may not have these yet, but can list some of the topics you've learned about in this tutorial.
Please list citations for information sources, including any images you will use in your presentation.
Have I made an outline, note cards, or some other organization aid to help guide my speech? What is it? How will I use it?
INSTRUCTIONS:IMPORTANT! DO NOT RESUBMIT YOUR TEST. THIS INCLUDES USING THE BACK BUTTON TO RESUBMIT OR RETRY YOUR EXAM, IT WILL INTERFERE WITH YOUR FINAL SCORE.
For each question, click on the response that is correct. You can answer each question only once.
DO NOT USE INTERNET EXPLORER TO TAKE THIS TEST
Which of the following is not something to consider about your topic before beginning the research process?
A big difference between Quick Search and the Library Catalog is:
Librarians are NOT available via Ask-A-Librarian in the following way:
What is available on a Research Guide?
Why would you use Gale Virtual Reference Library for locating background information?
Under the article database menu on the home page, which of the following is NOT an article database recommended for Computer Science?
When doing background research, why is it important to outline the information that you know, as well as the new information that you’re discovering about your topic?
Which of the following words could be a keyword in a research statement or question?
You’re reading a magazine article that keeps referring to a 2010 study on college seniors. You ask a librarian for help finding the article and the librararian says they are unable to locate it. This information is:
The article that you’re reading sounds really informative--it’s on an issue you’ve heard lots of people discussing, but it’s very brief and doesn’t have any pictures. You think the language sounds sophisticated but you can’t see any references at the end of the article. This article is NOT a:
Which of the following is NOT a defining characteristic of a scholarly article?
What is an “article database”?
What is a way you cannot use Omnifile Full Text Select to narrow the search you’ve performed?
Why are General/Multidisciplinary databases good to use for your assignment?
You’ve written a paper that includes proper citations, but the entire paper is mainly paraphrases.It is plagiarized.
Images that you’ve found online to use as visuals in your presentation don’t need to be cited.
Citations that have issue numbers are most likely:
Citations that include a publisher are most likely:
While playing the citation game you should have observed subtle differences between MLA and APA style. From the choices below, which is in correct MLA style?
The Undergraduate Library has a room on the second floor that provides writing, research and technology assistance with programs like PowerPoint, Photoshop and Final Cut.
IMPORTANT! DO NOT RESUBMIT YOUR TEST. THIS INCLUDES USING THE BACK BUTTON TO RESUBMIT OR RETRY YOUR EXAM, IT WILL INTERFERE WITH YOUR FINAL SCORE.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR SUBMITTING YOUR TEST RESULTS AFTER YOU'VE COMPLETED THE TEST. DO NOT SKIP ANY STEPS:
Share your victory: